Nomads use primitive tools which they can transport with them wherever they travel. These tools are simply made out of two horizontal sticks which are held down on the ground by pegs, on which strings are mounted as a base for the making of both Oriental rugs and Persian Rugs. These sticks can be dismounted to be carried from place to place, as the nomadic life demands. The designs are made through memory or by copying from a drawing. It is said that a full day of work produces an average of 7 000 to 10 000 knots and that nomads and peasants together make up the manufacturing force of the fabrication of Persian Rugs.
They are also manufactured in little workshops or big city factories. These facilities use machines that facilitates the more perfect end result of a Persian Carpet. For example, the basic strings on which they form the knots to make the carpet are pulled in a more uniform and tighter way, thus making the finished product smoother, and the sides straighter, while the nomadic productions are more crooked and rough looking. The shades of the colors don’t necessarily match, because they work by what they have in their possession at that moment in time.
Even though the Oriental and Persian Rugs making techniques vary from region to region, the basic principle of Persian rug manufacturing has remained unchanged. The base of an Oriental Carpet can be mounted either of cotton strings, silk, wool or even man made material such as viscose, acetate or even artificial silk. The piles are knotted around the foundation or warp or weft.
They are made of more friable material of wool, silk, or a mixture of silk and wool. In this case, silk is used to enhance details. Wool is the most commonly used material, because it is cheap and soft on hands, therefore easy to work with. Some Persian and Oriental Carpets are made entirely of silk. These are extremely fine rugs. They are often seen as wall hangings in certain homes. Silk Oriental and Persian Area Rugs have a unequaled luster and beauty. They are true works of art.
The value of a Persian Area Rug is based not only on the material it is made of but also on the number of knots by inch. A carpet can have as little as 25 to over 1000 knots per square inch. The more the knots per square inch the more intricate and full of rich details the design can be made. Just to give an example of how much work is involved in the making of an 8×10-foot Persian Rug, with a density of 140 knots per square inch it would take a master craftsman 4480 hours in other words, approximately a year and a half to finish the rug. Usually, two or three people work on a 8×10 Persian and Oriental Rug, thus reducing the time by one third. To work in this manner is truly functional and produces an exceptional work of art created with great patience, pride and love. After the rug is finished, they cut it from the loom. They reinforce the sides. They braid the warp ends that were attached to the loom, to form the fringe. Then the rug is washed to get rid of the dirt collected during the weaving, to add sheen to the wool, and to soften the colors. The rug is then dried in the sun. Now is the time for the master sheerer to cut off the top of the knots to create a uniform pile. Finally, this true work of art, is ready to be displayed in the most specialized store and enhance the beauty of any room and become a heirloom and the pride possession of its owners.